W.P. Groenevelt. Notes On the Malay Archipelago And Malaca: Compiled From Chinese Sources. Venhandeligen van Het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen Vol. XXXIX (39) in 1880. isi disalin tanpa perubahan dicetak dalam bentuk buku Historical Notes on Indonesia & Malaya: Complied From Chinese Sources. C.V Bharatara bekerjasama dengan Lembaga Kebudayaan Indonesia. 1960. Jakarta Hlm. 94-96.
Ying-Yai Sheng-lan (1416)
Going From Malacca with a ship for four day and night, one may arrive there.
In This Country is a river called the fresh water river and entering this, one arrives at the settlement. On the south of this country are large mountain on the north it has the sea, on the west it is connected with sumatera and on the east there is flat land.
The soil only fit for dry ricefields and the rice is of a very small grain, but there is always a sufficiet quantity of it. The people live from agriculture and fishing.
Their manners and customs are pure: the ceremonies of marriage, burial etc, are similar to those in java and malacca. Foreign goods are little used them, cotton cloth is called K’au-ni. Besides rice they have plenty of cattle, goat, fowls and duck: milk is much used amongst them.
The King and the people are all Mahomedans.
In the forrest is a sort of fliying tiger, of the size of a cat: it’s whole body is covered with the hair of an ashy colour and it has fleshy wing like a bat: this wing connect the fore with the hind legs and it cannot fly far: when it is cought it will not be fed and soon dies.
The Country is small and Produces Nothing for Export but Fragrant Resins and Such Things.
Hsing-Ch’a Sheng-lan (1436)
Aru is situated opposite to the sembilan island (Pulu Sembilan on the Coast of Perak): with a fair wind it takes three days and night to go there from malacca.
The Customes of the people and the climate differ little from sumatra. The soil is barren and produce little: the people chiefly live on banana and coconuts.
Man and Women go with the upper part of body naked and wear round the lower part a coarse cloth: for their livelyhood they fish in the sea in boat made out of one tree, or they go into the forrest to collect campor and such thing. Every man carries a bow and poissoned arrows to protect himself.
The product of the country are crane-crest and camphor, which they sell to foreign trader. In exchange they take cooloured silk, earthenware, glassbeads, etc.
History of the Ming Dinasty (1368-1643)
Aru is situated near Malacca: with a fair wind the passage takes three days.
The customs and manner are about the same as in Sumatera: Theri fields are poor and yield little, but they plant large quantities of plaintains and coconuts, which they use as food.
In the year 1411 their King Su-lu-tang Hut-sin sent envoy to bring tribute. Together with those of Calicut and other countries. The Envoy, were presented with caps, girdles, silks, money and paper money, and presents for the king were sent with them.
In the year 1412 Cheng ho visited their country as an imperial envoy.
In the year 1419 the King son. Tuan A-la-sa, sent envoys to bring tribute, which was repeated in 1421 and 1423. In 1431, Cheng Ho went to the different barbarian countries, present were sent also to this land, but after wards their tributes-bearer did not come any more.
The name of the country, mention above, still survive in the aru Island, but from description it clearly follows that not these were meant, but a place on the coast of Sumatera. It is however probable that the Aru-Islands belonges to it and either indebted to it for their name, or that it was call after them: we think therefore that is was that part of the coast which is nearest to them, about the mouth of burromon-river.
when the Europeans arrived in this part, Aru still existed as a seperate kingdom, and in the first war of the portugese with atjeh, we find the king of Aru among their allies.
On it’s western frotier this country bordere on the teritory of Sumatra which has been treated already, and we may therefor proceed at once to the western side of latter state, where three other coutries were visited by the chinese envoys.